Friday, December 28, 2018

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?







What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

Artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals.
In computer science AI research is defined as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals
Artificial Intelligence

Father of Artificial Intelligence

In 1956, John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI, organized the Dartmouth conference that brought together the founders in AI, and the groundwork for the future of AI research.
The Logic Theorist, considered by many to be the first AI program was developed in 1959.
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According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it is The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.
Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.

Father of A.I.
Father of Artificial Intelligence John McCarthy
AI is accomplished by studying how human brain thinks, and how humans learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the outcomes of this study as a basis of developing intelligent software and systems.
Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.

The scope of AI is disputed: 

As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring "intelligence" are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet."For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from "artificial intelligence", having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), autonomously operating cars, and intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.  
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 What Contributes to AI?

 Artificial intelligence is a science and technology based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering. A major thrust of AI is in the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and problem solving.





History of artificial intelligence


The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956. Attendees Allen Newell (Carnegie Mellon University), Herbert Simon (CMU), John McCarthy (MIT), Marvin Minsky (MIT) and Arthur Samuel (IBM) became the founders and leaders of AI research. They and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies (c. 1954) (and by 1959 were reportedly playing better than the average human), solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems (Logic Theorist, first run c. 1956) and speaking English. By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defense and laboratories had been established around the world. AI's founders were optimistic about the future: Herbert Simon predicted, "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do". Marvin Minsky agreed, writing, "within a generation ... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved".
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The study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction. This insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed that "if a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered “intelligent".The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons".

According to an article by The Economist, America and China are the superpowers in terms of Artificial Intelligence.Over the time, America and China have collected and attracted the core information that contributed to development of Artificial Intelligence ranging from facial recognition to driver-less cars. Based on an estimate presented on The Economist article, China is expected to hold about 30% of world's data and America is likely to hold the same as well.

Applications of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence, defined as intelligence exhibited by machines, has many applications in today's society. More specifically, it is Weak AI, the form of A.I. where programs are developed to perform specific tasks, that is being utilized for a wide range of activities including medical diagnosis, electronic trading, robot control, and remote sensing. AI has been used to develop and advance numerous fields and industries, including finance, healthcare, education, transportation, and more.
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Artificial Intelligence for Good

AI for Good is a movement in which institutions are employing AI to tackle some of the world's greatest economic and social challenges. For example, the University of Southern California launched the Center for Artificial Intelligence in Society, with the goal of using AI to address socially relevant problems such as homelessness. At Stanford, researchers are using AI to analyze satellite images to identify which areas have the highest poverty levels.

Expert Systems 

There are some applications which integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users.

Speech Recognition 

Some intelligent systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, etc.

Handwriting Recognition 

The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text.

https://technewsaman.blogspot.com/2018/10/what-is-artificial-intelligence.html Intelligent Robots 

Robots are able to perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. In addition, they are capable of learning from their mistakes and they can adapt to the new environment.

Computer science

AI can be used to create other AI. For example, around November 2017, Google's AutoML project to evolve new neural net topologies created(Neural architecture search (NAS)NASNet, a system optimized for ImageNet and COCO. According to Google, NASNet's performance exceeded all previously published ImageNet performance.
https://technewsaman.blogspot.com/2018/10/what-is-artificial-intelligence.htmlAI can be used to potentially determine the developer of anonymous binaries.

AI researchers have created many tools to solve the most difficult problems in computer science. Many of their inventions have been adopted by mainstream computer science and are no longer considered a part of AI. (See AI effect.) According to Russell & Norvig (2003, p. 15), all of the following were originally developed in AI laboratories: time sharing, interactive interpreters, graphical user interfaces(GUI) and the computer mouse, rapid development(RD) environments, the linked list data structure, automatic storage management, symbolic programming, functional programming, dynamic programming and object-oriented programming(OOP). 

Heavy industry

Robots have become common in many industries and are often given jobs that are considered dangerous to humans. Robots have proven effective in jobs that are very repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse in concentration and other jobs which humans may find degrading.
In 2014, China, Japan, the United State, the Republic of Korea and Germany together amounted to 70% of the total sales volume of robots. In the automotive industry, a sector with particularly high degree of automation, Japan had the highest density of industrial robots in the world: 1,414 per 10,000 employees.

Hospitals and medicine

 Artificial neural networks are used as clinical decision support systems for medical diagnosis, such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR software.
Other tasks in medicine that can potentially be performed by artificial intelligence:
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  •  Predict HIV progression.
  • Predict the likelihood of death from surgical procedures
  • Mining medical records to provide more useful information.
  • Heart sound analysis.
  • Assist in repetitive jobs including medication management.
  • Provide consultations.
  • Drug creation.
  • Companion robots for the care of the elderly.
  • Computer-aided interpretation of medical images. Such systems help scan digital images, e.g. from computed tomography, for typical appearances and to highlight conspicuous sections, such as possible diseases. A typical application is the detection of a tumor.
  • Using avatars in place of patients for clinical training.  
Currently, there are over 90 AI startups in the health industry working in these fields.

Telecommunications maintenance

Many telecommunications companies make use of heuristic search in the management of their workforces, for example BT Group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling application that provides the work schedules of 20,000 engineers.  

Gaming

AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine can think of large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
https://technewsaman.blogspot.com/2018/10/what-is-artificial-intelligence.htmlThe 1990s saw some of the first attempts to mass-produce domestically aimed types of basic Artificial Intelligence for education, or leisure. This prospered greatly with the Digital Revolution, and helped introduce people, especially children, to a life of dealing with various types of Artificial Intelligence, specifically in the form of Tamagotchis and Giga Pets, iPod Touch, the Internet, and the first widely released robot, Furby. A mere year later an improved type of domestic robot was released in the form of Aibo, a robotic dog with intelligent features and autonomy.
AI has also been applied to video games, for example video game bots, which are designed to stand in as opponents where humans aren't available or desired.  

Transportation

Fuzzy logic controllers have been developed for automatic gearboxes in automobiles. For example, the 2006 Audi TT, VW Touareg and VW Caravell feature the DSP transmission which utilizes Fuzzy Logic. A number of Škoda variants (Škoda Fabia) also currently include a Fuzzy Logic-based controller.
Today's cars now have AI-based driver assist features such as self-parking and advanced cruise controls. AI has been used to optimize traffic management applications, which in turn reduces wait times, energy use, and emissions by as much as 25 percent. In the future, fully autonomous cars will be developed. AI in transportation is expected to provide safe, efficient, and reliable transportation while minimizing the impact on the environment and communities. The major challenge to developing this AI is the fact that transportation systems are inherently complex systems involving a very large number of components and different parties, each having different and often conflicting objectives.

Natural Language Processing 

 It is possible to interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans.

Vision Systems 

Artificial intelligenceThese systems understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,
A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas.
Doctors use clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.
Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.




 Some Other applications of AI

A robot who once said she would 'destroy humans' just became the first robot citizen
Sophia Robot
  • Facial recognition system
  • Optical character recognition.
  • Photo and Video manipulation.
  • Diagnosis (artificial intelligence).
  • Game theory and Strategic planning.
  • Game artificial intelligence and Computer game bot.
  •  Computational creativity.
  • Computer vision, Virtual reality, and Image processing.
  • Sophia is a robot who once said she would 'destroy humans' just became the first robot citizen
     

 Philosophy of AI

While exploiting the power of the computer systems, the curiosity of human, lead him to wonder, “Can a machine think and behave like humans do?”

Thus, the development of AI started with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans.