Friday, December 28, 2018

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

Artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals.
In computer science AI research is defined as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals
Artificial Intelligence

Father of Artificial Intelligence

In 1956, John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI, organized the Dartmouth conference that brought together the founders in AI, and the groundwork for the future of AI research.
The Logic Theorist, considered by many to be the first AI program was developed in 1959.

According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it is The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.
Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.

Father of A.I.
Father of Artificial Intelligence John McCarthy
AI is accomplished by studying how human brain thinks, and how humans learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the outcomes of this study as a basis of developing intelligent software and systems.
Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.

The scope of AI is disputed: 

As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring "intelligence" are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet."For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from "artificial intelligence", having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), autonomously operating cars, and intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.

 What Contributes to AI?

 Artificial intelligence is a science and technology based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering. A major thrust of AI is in the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and problem solving.

History of artificial intelligence

The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956. Attendees Allen Newell (Carnegie Mellon University), Herbert Simon (CMU), John McCarthy (MIT), Marvin Minsky (MIT) and Arthur Samuel (IBM) became the founders and leaders of AI research. They and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies (c. 1954) (and by 1959 were reportedly playing better than the average human), solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems (Logic Theorist, first run c. 1956) and speaking English. By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defense and laboratories had been established around the world. AI's founders were optimistic about the future: Herbert Simon predicted, "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do". Marvin Minsky agreed, writing, "within a generation ... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved".

The study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction. This insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed that "if a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered “intelligent".The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons".

According to an article by The Economist, America and China are the superpowers in terms of Artificial Intelligence.Over the time, America and China have collected and attracted the core information that contributed to development of Artificial Intelligence ranging from facial recognition to driver-less cars. Based on an estimate presented on The Economist article, China is expected to hold about 30% of world's data and America is likely to hold the same as well.

Applications of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence, defined as intelligence exhibited by machines, has many applications in today's society. More specifically, it is Weak AI, the form of A.I. where programs are developed to perform specific tasks, that is being utilized for a wide range of activities including medical diagnosis, electronic trading, robot control, and remote sensing. AI has been used to develop and advance numerous fields and industries, including finance, healthcare, education, transportation, and more.

Artificial Intelligence for Good

AI for Good is a movement in which institutions are employing AI to tackle some of the world's greatest economic and social challenges. For example, the University of Southern California launched the Center for Artificial Intelligence in Society, with the goal of using AI to address socially relevant problems such as homelessness. At Stanford, researchers are using AI to analyze satellite images to identify which areas have the highest poverty levels.

Expert Systems 

There are some applications which integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users.

Speech Recognition 

Some intelligent systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, etc.

Handwriting Recognition 

The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text. Intelligent Robots 

Robots are able to perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. In addition, they are capable of learning from their mistakes and they can adapt to the new environment.

Computer science

AI can be used to create other AI. For example, around November 2017, Google's AutoML project to evolve new neural net topologies created(Neural architecture search (NAS)NASNet, a system optimized for ImageNet and COCO. According to Google, NASNet's performance exceeded all previously published ImageNet performance. can be used to potentially determine the developer of anonymous binaries.

AI researchers have created many tools to solve the most difficult problems in computer science. Many of their inventions have been adopted by mainstream computer science and are no longer considered a part of AI. (See AI effect.) According to Russell & Norvig (2003, p. 15), all of the following were originally developed in AI laboratories: time sharing, interactive interpreters, graphical user interfaces(GUI) and the computer mouse, rapid development(RD) environments, the linked list data structure, automatic storage management, symbolic programming, functional programming, dynamic programming and object-oriented programming(OOP). 

Heavy industry

Robots have become common in many industries and are often given jobs that are considered dangerous to humans. Robots have proven effective in jobs that are very repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse in concentration and other jobs which humans may find degrading.
In 2014, China, Japan, the United State, the Republic of Korea and Germany together amounted to 70% of the total sales volume of robots. In the automotive industry, a sector with particularly high degree of automation, Japan had the highest density of industrial robots in the world: 1,414 per 10,000 employees.

Hospitals and medicine

 Artificial neural networks are used as clinical decision support systems for medical diagnosis, such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR software.
Other tasks in medicine that can potentially be performed by artificial intelligence:
  •  Predict HIV progression.
  • Predict the likelihood of death from surgical procedures
  • Mining medical records to provide more useful information.
  • Heart sound analysis.
  • Assist in repetitive jobs including medication management.
  • Provide consultations.
  • Drug creation.
  • Companion robots for the care of the elderly.
  • Computer-aided interpretation of medical images. Such systems help scan digital images, e.g. from computed tomography, for typical appearances and to highlight conspicuous sections, such as possible diseases. A typical application is the detection of a tumor.
  • Using avatars in place of patients for clinical training.  
Currently, there are over 90 AI startups in the health industry working in these fields.

Telecommunications maintenance

Many telecommunications companies make use of heuristic search in the management of their workforces, for example BT Group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling application that provides the work schedules of 20,000 engineers.  


AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine can think of large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge. 1990s saw some of the first attempts to mass-produce domestically aimed types of basic Artificial Intelligence for education, or leisure. This prospered greatly with the Digital Revolution, and helped introduce people, especially children, to a life of dealing with various types of Artificial Intelligence, specifically in the form of Tamagotchis and Giga Pets, iPod Touch, the Internet, and the first widely released robot, Furby. A mere year later an improved type of domestic robot was released in the form of Aibo, a robotic dog with intelligent features and autonomy.
AI has also been applied to video games, for example video game bots, which are designed to stand in as opponents where humans aren't available or desired.  


Fuzzy logic controllers have been developed for automatic gearboxes in automobiles. For example, the 2006 Audi TT, VW Touareg and VW Caravell feature the DSP transmission which utilizes Fuzzy Logic. A number of Å koda variants (Å koda Fabia) also currently include a Fuzzy Logic-based controller.
Today's cars now have AI-based driver assist features such as self-parking and advanced cruise controls. AI has been used to optimize traffic management applications, which in turn reduces wait times, energy use, and emissions by as much as 25 percent. In the future, fully autonomous cars will be developed. AI in transportation is expected to provide safe, efficient, and reliable transportation while minimizing the impact on the environment and communities. The major challenge to developing this AI is the fact that transportation systems are inherently complex systems involving a very large number of components and different parties, each having different and often conflicting objectives.

Natural Language Processing 

 It is possible to interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans.

Vision Systems 

Artificial intelligenceThese systems understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,
A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas.
Doctors use clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.
Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.

 Some Other applications of AI

A robot who once said she would 'destroy humans' just became the first robot citizen
Sophia Robot
  • Facial recognition system
  • Optical character recognition.
  • Photo and Video manipulation.
  • Diagnosis (artificial intelligence).
  • Game theory and Strategic planning.
  • Game artificial intelligence and Computer game bot.
  •  Computational creativity.
  • Computer vision, Virtual reality, and Image processing.
  • Sophia is a robot who once said she would 'destroy humans' just became the first robot citizen

 Philosophy of AI

While exploiting the power of the computer systems, the curiosity of human, lead him to wonder, “Can a machine think and behave like humans do?”

Thus, the development of AI started with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans.


Wednesday, October 17, 2018


Diwali, Dipawali, Laxmi pooja, Maa Laxmi pooja,Fastival of light all are the same name of diwali.
Happy Diwali 2018 to all of you and your loved ones!
I wish you very very happy happy diwali 2018.
This year diwali is celebrated on Wednesday,7th November,2018

 India is all set to welcome the  festival of lights, After Durga puja,Dashera(Nawratri) Dhanteras and Choti Diwali, comes the grand big day of Diwali.Dipawali is also known as Amawasya parv because the festival of light Diwali is celebrated on the 15th day of  Kartik month as per Hindu calender.

Shubh Dipawali

 DIwali  is fastival of Diya and Bati and Candals and we are clean and decorate our houses,shops and all things which are releted with us.In Diwali we pray to MAA LAXMI ji.Diwali is dedicated to Lakshmi to welcome her into their cleaned homes and bring prosperity and happiness for the coming year. Dipawali is a most importent fastival of hindus.

Shubh dipawali

 Diwali, or Deepavali, is the Hindu festival of lights, which is celebrated every autumn in the northern hemisphere. One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, Diwali symbolises the spiritual "victory of light over darkness, good over evil and knowledge over ignorance".
In the Gregorian calendar, the festival generally falls between mid-October and mid-November.




  We celebrated Diwali on 7th November 2018 We told the story of Rama and Sita  and performed a Dandiya stick dance. We also displayed our  Rangoli patterns.The Children retold the story of Rama and the Demon King.Once upon a time in India there was a great warrior, Prince Rama, who had a beautiful wife named Sita and a loyal friend called Lakshman Everyone in the kingdom loved them accept for the Queen.Rama, Sita and Lakshman were sent away to live in the forest by the Jealous Queen. There was also a terrible demon king who lived near the forest, His name was  Ravana.


He had ten heads, and was feared throughout the land. He saw Sita wanted to   make her his wife, and one day he took her away in his chariot.Clever Sita left a trail of her jewellery for Rama to follow.Rama followed the trail of glittering jewellery where he met the monkey king, Hanuman and his army.


 Hanuman agreed to help find Sita with Rama and Lakshman.They found Sita and Rama stopped Ravana with a magic arrow and rescued Sita. Rama, Sita and Lakshman began their long journey back to their land, and everybody lit oil lamps to guide them on their way and welcome them back.


 Some Diwali Images 

shubh dipawali


"This Diwali I Am Sending You CASH:


  • "Together with the glow of diyas and the echo of the chants, will the happiness and the contentment fulfill your lifetime."
  • "There’s not any ideal time more fitting at the year to say Thank You and wish you a Happy Diwali Season!"
  • "The pleasant odor of the blossoms, the collection of those colors, firecrackers discovered, candles lit, kids play, gifts given, folks pray, Diwali is now here! Happy Diwali!"   
 Happy diwali once again!
Thank you so much!

Thursday, October 11, 2018


Hello, welcome to my first blog.
I am Aman Pandey
from vill- laxmipur post-nebua rayganj
dist-Kushinagar, Gorakhpur, utter-pradesh(INDIA).




Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhartha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was a monk, mendicant, and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

     (According to Buddhist tradition)   

  • Born-             c. 563 or c. 480 BCE Lumbini,(Nepal) Shakya Republic
  • Died-             c. 483 or c. 400 BCE  Kushinagar, Utter pradesh
  • Age-              80 year a/c to buddhist  
  • Mother-        Maya
  • Spouse-        Yasodhara 
  • Buddha's son- Rahul

  1. Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.
  2. The mind is everything. What you think you become.
  3. We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.
  4. All that we are is the result of what we have thought.
  5. Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.   



  Map of kushinagar:

   Thank you so much!!!!!!😍😍😍😘😘😘😘